Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Introduction to the Scientific Revolution

The term Scientific Revolution is in itself controversial. Traditionally the term is used to describe the spectacular intellectual triumphs of sixteenth and seventeenth century European astronomy and physical science. But perhaps this is a rather simplistic view because much of the success of the scientific revolution was based firmly on achievements made during the Renaissance and before. The term revolution implies a rapid transformation but many scientific discoveries were achieved gradually phase by phase over a long period of time.

Despite this qualification by 1700 educated people conceived the universe as a mechanical structure like a clock and nature was supposed to be open to investigation by means of experimentation and mathematical analysis. Such new attitudes contrasted markedly with traditional idea i.e. that the Earth was immobile and the centre of the universe which was composed of a series of crystalline spheres and nature was a living organism. In the medieval world picture Aristotle rules - the heavens were unchangeable, motion of the planets was circular and perfect. Below the moon the Earth was changeable and was composed of only four elements - earth, water, air and fire. Thomas Aquinas had sought to assimilate Christian doctrine to the philosophy of Aristotle.

The major shift in outlook during the early modern period was closely associated with a broader cultural transformation in which the acquisition of natural knowledge and the control of nature were associated with man's religious destiny. Thus the scientific revolution, if the term be allowed to stand, reflected revolution or change in other areas of society. In particular in this essay I want to discuss how the scientific revolution was a reflection of changes taking place in the Renaissance, religious change in the Reformation, technical and educational changes in particular which reflect world geographical discoveries and with a brief mention of politics, economics and war's effect on science.


During the Renaissance Aristotle's views had been questioned. Nicole Oresme denied the validity of reasoned argument and physical theory. Aristotle had developed a physical system largely by deductive reasoning but the Nominalists rejected deduction from the mere nature of objects and applied a stronger emphasis on empirical facts. Jean Buridan and Oresme advocated such views. Oresme felt that Christian doctrine was the only valid authority for knowledge and theology was the Queen of Sciences. The limitation of human reason implied that Christian doctrine alone could serve as the ultimate authority for human understanding. As the Renaissance progressed the interest in natural magic became dominant in the study of the natural world and such an investigation was sanctioned by the rediscovery of the texts of Hermes Trismegistus, quite wrongly believed to be of great antiquity.

The hermetic writings contain a blend of mysticism, magical and Christian elements. Renaissance thinkers thus secured the harmony between Christian theology and the vision of the natural world in the hermetic texts. The hermetic emphasis on the control of power by man was a significant feature of Renaissance natural magic or alchemy of which the chief exponent was Paracelsus. From this example we can see how an important stimulus to research (even if often of not direct scientific value) were the texts made available by the humanist scholars. The work of all the Greek writers was made available and the work of recovery was a precondition for future advance in scientific thinking even if many old ideas were rejected or open to misinterpretation such as the Hermetica which made astrology, alchemy and magic acceptable which would retard the advance of actual science. However, the humanists did the world of science a great service in spreading Plato's ideas because underlying the work of Copernicus, Brahe and Kepler was the Platonic assumption that the world could be explained in mathematical terms. The idea was applied to astronomy originally because Aristotle had held that mathematics could not explain phenomena on earth adequately but this view was overturned and led to the rise of mechanics under Galileo and Simon Stevin aided and abetted by the humanist translations of Archimedes.

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

How Has Technology Enriched Online Education?

Are you aspiring for a better education or a better future? Are you tired of attending classes of your college or university? Here comes the solution. With the progress of technology, online education has taken its birth and it is of immense help to young adults and working people. It should always be remembered that education is not a compulsive duty. It should rather be taken with enthusiasm and joyful mood. It is only through education that people get employed in different sectors and make a bright future.

All these years you have been using the internet for shopping, downloading songs or videos, booking travel tickets and so on. Google, the most important search engine is of great help and with the help of this; you can educate yourself with the fast growth of technology. Most men choose their career path in online degrees or diplomas.

School or college education is discouraging

To some people, education from a regular institute can appear to be boring. The monotony of attending lectures, facing of punishments given by teachers or professors is really discouraging. When a student fails to complete his assignments, he gets rebuked by his teacher and harsh words are showered upon him. In this way his dream to fulfill his academic goal gets shattered.

Thursday, January 19, 2012

Armoured Dinosaur Discovery From China

A joint Japanese and Chinese team of palaeontologists have announced the discovery of a new dinosaur species that roamed eastern China approximately one hundred million years ago, (the Albian stage of the middle Cretaceous). The animal was found in the south-western region of Zhejiang province, when workmen building a road in twelve years ago, close to the city of Lishui unearthed the first of a series of well- preserved bones. A number of Japanese researchers and field staff have joined the scientific teams working in China to help explore and excavate the many numerous dinosaur fossil finds - part of an extensive co-operation project led by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

As geologists map out in detail the geology of the more remote areas of China and construction of roads and other engineering projects take place, so a number of amazing dinosaur fossil discoveries are being made. Officials and local area administrators are keen to stop any such geological surveys or construction projects, at least to allow palaeontologists to examine any fossil bones discovered. The diligence shown by local officials when dinosaur and other prehistoric animal fossil bones are discovered has enabled the country to amass a huge amount of fossil material. For example, the vertebrate fossil collection at the Beijing based Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology has an estimated two hundred and fifty thousand bones in its collection. This makes this scientific institution the World's record holder for the most amount of vertebrate fossils stored in the same place.

New Armoured Dinosaur Discovered

From one particular site, part of a highway construction project, the joint Sino/Japanese team were able to unearth a substantial portion of the skeleton of a new type of armoured dinosaur.

Post cranial bones, parts of the pelvis, the two hind-limbs plus tail and back vertebrae were recovered from the site, enough to permit the scientists to identify this as a brand new species of dinosaur. The animal has been named Zhejiangosaurus lishuiensis (in honour of the province and the nearby city). It was a Nodosaurid, an armoured dinosaur similar to the better known Ankylosaurs but without the characteristic tail club. The animal, believed to be a fully grown adult was over six metres long but with a squat gait, typical of a Nodosaur only reaching a height of one metre at the shoulders. It was a herbivore, part of group of dinosaurs that are regarded as more primitive than the better-known Ankylosaurs. Nodosaurs had body armour that consisted of plates, spines and spikes and this new fossil find represents one of the largest species known to science.

A new Dinosaur - Zhejiangosaurus

Palaeontologists believe that Nodosaurs such as Zhejiangosaurus had a more specialised diet than their Ankylosaur cousins, as shown by their narrow, sleek jaws and finer teeth. They may have been croppers of plant material and quite selective in terms of the vegetation that they faced. The body armour and defensive spikes would have helped protect these slow-moving herbivores from the many types of carnivorous dinosaur that lived in China during the Cretaceous period.

Saturday, December 10, 2011

How Parents Can Help Their Children To Learn Effectively

Parents want their children to do well at school and get a good job. Parents also want their children to be happy and feel fulfilled but sometimes do not know how best to help them achieve this.

As soon as your child is born you are their first teacher and will make an enormous difference to their life if you give them the help they need. Families can enjoy learning together. The home and its immediate environment offers so many wonderful opportunities for exploration, play, discovery, education and learning.

The concerns that parents have is universal. Parents worry about how to spend more quality time with their child. How to give them the best possible start in life is also a major worry for a majority of parents as well as finding ways to help their child to do well at the things they themselves find difficult.

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Wealth Discovery - Channel in Cash Flow


There is a constant need to discover wealth and channel in tons of cash flow in this world today. It is a direct result of the economy going down the drain. Everyone wants to find leverage to get out of their bad financial situations. So, let's back it up a little bit. How did we get here? How did the economy get into the state it's in? We can blame the government, Wall Street, banks, etc, but it really doesn't matter who we blame. The fault lies within "us," greed and poorly financially educated citizens. Trust me the poor education it truly the main cause of it all. We, you and I, have caused our own problems. Don't believe me? Answer these questions:

Do you have credit score of 690 or better?
Are you in pre-foreclosure or foreclosure?
Does your debt account for more than 50-70% of your income monthly?
Do you have a car note?

If you answered YES to any of these questions then you lack some financial education that could have gotten you out of all these situations. What we think we know or understand about finances is probably out-dated or not even close to being relevant in this economy. Billions of people still believe that saving money is a good strategy to having money. We live in a world where if your money is not making money then you are losing this game. I'm not talking about 1% on the dollar. That's not even worth the time. Who cares to make a penny for every dollar?! How about making 20-50 cents for every dollar? That sounds so much better, right?! The point is that you have to increase your cash flow.

Friday, October 14, 2011

Teachers Learn a Lesson in Education Technology

Teachers from school districts all over the state of Kansas attended a workshop last month to receive an education of their own in education technology. At the workshop, they learned about the Discovery Education Network, a "global community of educators passionate about teaching with digital media." New forms of education technology have made their way into classrooms across the country, and are benefiting students and teachers alike. By using technology to engage their students in the classroom environment, teachers can hold their attention better and prepare them for future use of technology, either in school or a career.

Dean Mantz works as the technology integration and network coordinator for the Sterling school district in Kansas. In his tenure, Mantz has watched school technology specialists become increasingly involved in the development of new educational tools, as well as education technology instruction. Mantz himself worked as a teacher for 14 years. He said that today, "teachers have to prepare children to eventually work in a technology-advanced world."

Sunday, September 18, 2011

Chemistry - 6 Important Events That Led to the Discovery of Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Mechanics is a purely mathematical description of the atom and the subatomic particles. But, that doesn't mean you have to be a nuclear physicist to understand how the atom is arranged or its importance. You can develop an appreciation and a basic understanding of the quantum atom by learning the major events that led to the discovery of the quantum atom.

#1 Discovery of the Electron

In 1898 J.J. Thomson proved the existence of the electron and changed our perception of matter forever. Although others (George Stoney) had predicted there were particles smaller than the atom, they were unable to prove it. J.J. Thomson not only proved the existence of a subatomic particle; he suggested a new atomic model, the "Plum Pudding Model".

#2 Discovery of the Nucleus and Proton

The discovery of the electron led others to test ideas that there might be other subatomic particles. One such person, a former student of J.J. Thomson's, was Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford assigned two assistants, Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden, to perform the now famous "Gold-foil Experiment". The result of this experiment led Rutherford to conclude that the atom must be mostly space with the majority of its mass located in a very small, dense, centrally located region of the atom. Rutherford named this dense, positively charged region the nucleus later determined that the positive charge was due to another subatomic particle he named the proton.

Friday, August 19, 2011

Discovery Science Toys - Dig and Discover

Dig and discover is an awesome range of kits from Kristal Educational teaching archaeology, palaeontology, or geology through a discovery science toy. There are 26 kits featured on Amazon covering a great range of topics including the Civil War, Dinosaurs, Ancient Civilizations such as the Egyptians, Romans and Mayans as well as crystals, coins, treasure and many more areas of interest!

Sunday, July 10, 2011

The Educational Value of Crossword Puzzles

The education value of crossword puzzles is readily apparent when one considers the multiple learning skills involved in both creating and solving these puzzles. No longer just a fun diversion, crossword puzzles have reached the status of a national pastime in the US and in other countries. Their popularity began around the 1920s and continues to grow today.

Crossword puzzles, at a very basic level, can be a fun way to introduce word skills to the youngest students, while older ones can add to their vocabulary set. Adults meanwhile, enjoy these puzzles so much that they work on millions of copies of puzzles in magazines, newspapers and books every day. In today's technologically advanced world, there are even computer programs available-such as Discovery Education's Puzzlemaker-that allows teachers to create customizable puzzles to support classroom instruction for all grades.